Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training.

In both the summary while the paraphrase we have quoted Curtis’s “clustering together in a ball that is dense” a phrase that lies at the heart of her description of wintering honeybees. For all of us to spell it out this clustering in virtually any language apart from Curtis’s would be pointless since her description is admirably precise.

Quoting Authoritative Language

You will also want to make use of quotations that lend authority to your work. When quoting a specialist or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you raise up your own work by placing it in esteemed company. Quote respected figures to ascertain background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to perceive that given information as reliable. Quote the opinions of respected figures to endorse some statement that you have made, as well as your statement becomes more credible to your readers. For instance, in an essay you could possibly write in the importance of reading well, you might make use of a passage from Thoreau’s Walden:

It “is a exercise that is noble” writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, “and one that will task your reader more than any exercise that your customs of the day esteem. A training is required by it including the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly while they were written.”

By quoting a philosopher that is famous essayist about the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion. Not just do you regard reading to be an art and craft that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential American thinkers. The quotation has elevated the level of your work.

You may quote to advantage figures that are well-respected’ve written or spoken in regards to the subject of one’s paper. Here is a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler relates to a physicist and an astronaut:

A few scientists – notably James Van Allen, discoverer associated with the Earth’s radiation belts – have decried the trouble associated with manned space program and called for an almost exclusive focus on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this could be far more cost-effective.

Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and shuttle that is former, says, “It seems to be argued this one takes from the other. But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero. Now it really is about $500 million a year.”

Note, first, that in the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to incorporate remarks created by James Van Allen to the discussion on space flight. Within the paragraph that is second Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend legitimacy and authority towards the article, both for James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of space flight. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both making sure that their qualifications to speak about the subject are recognized to all:

James Van Allen, discoverer associated with the Earth’s radiation belts .
Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut .

The phrases in italics are known as appositives. Their function is to rename the nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail. Any information regarding somebody who could be expressed into the following sentence pattern can be changed to an phrase that is appositive

James Van Allen is the discoverer associated with Earth’s radiation belts.

James Van Allen has decried the trouble associated with space program that is manned

James Van Allen, discoverer for the Earth’s radiation belts, has decried the cost associated with space program that is manned.

Use appositives to spot authors that you quote.

Incorporating Quotations into the Sentences

Quoting Only the right part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need
As you’ve seen, a writer selects passages for quotation which are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative. Now we will put these principles into practice. Guess that while conducting research on the subject of college sports you’ve run into the following, compiled by Robert Hutchins, former president of this University of Chicago:

If athleticism is bad for students, players, alumni while the public, it really is a whole lot worse when it comes to colleges and universities themselves. They would like to be institutions that are educational nonetheless they can’t. The story for the halfback that is famous only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was which he had not learned to learn and write is probably exaggerated. But we ought to admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, “friends,” presidents and even professors has tended to relax academic standards. These gentry often disregard the known proven fact that a college shouldn’t be enthusiastic about a fullback who is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing as well as the double educational standard cannot exist with no knowledge while the tacit approval, at the very least, for the colleges and universities themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted if you are paying them for serving as “faculty representatives” in the college athletic boards. 4

Guess that using this paragraph that is entire find a gem, a quotable grouping of words that will enliven your discussion. You might want to quote part of the following sentence:

These gentry often disregard the known undeniable fact that a college should not be enthusiastic about a fullback who is a half-wit.

Incorporating the Quotation into the Flow of your own personal Sentence
Once you’ve selected the passage you intend to quote, work the material to your paper in as natural and fluid a way that you can. Here is exactly how we would quote Hutchins:

Robert Hutchins, a president that is former of University of Chicago, asserts that “a college really should not be thinking about a fullback who is a half-wit.”

Keep in mind that we have used an appositive to spot Hutchins. So we’ve used only the area of the paragraph – a clause that is single that we thought memorable adequate to quote directly.

Avoiding Freestanding Quotations
A quoted sentence must not stand by itself – as in the following example:

Various people from the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. “These gentry often forget the proven fact that a college really should not be enthusiastic about a fullback who is a half-wit.” But this type or type of thinking is bad for the university as well as worse for the athletes.

Even you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation. Introduce the quotation by attributing the source in a few other area of the sentence – beginning, middle, or end. Thus, you might write:

in accordance with Robert Hutchins, “These gentry often forget the proven fact that a college shouldn’t be thinking about a fullback who is a half-wit.”

“These gentry,” asserts Robert Hutchins, “often overlook the fact that a college should not be thinking about a fullback that is a half-wit.”

Another alternative is always to introduce a quotation that is sentence-long a colon:

But Robert Hutchins disagrees: “These gentry often forget the known undeniable fact that a college shouldn’t be interested in a fullback that is a half-wit.”

Use colons and also to introduce indented quotations (like in the examples above).

When attributing sources, attempt to vary the standard “states,” “writes,” “says,” and so on. Other, stronger verbs you may consider: “asserts,” “argues,” “maintains,” “insists,” “asks,” and also “wonders.”

Using Ellipsis Marks
Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you wish to quote the beginning and end of a passage but not its middle – as was the outcome once we quoted Henry David Thoreau. Here’s area of the paragraph in Walden from where we quoted a sentences that are few

to read through well, this is certainly, to learn true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, plus one which will task your reader more than any exercise that the customs for the day esteem. It requires a training like the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost associated with entire life to this object. Books must certanly be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. 5

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